Experience of restoration and reconstruction of architectural monuments: from engineering researches to projects implementation by scientists and students of MGSU

Vestnik MGSU 7/2014
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 18-27

For more than 20 years the author with his colleagues conducts engineering researches, design of restoration and reconstruction of various architectural monuments. Full cycles of works from engineering investigations to implementation of the own projects are executed on three objects: 1) architectural monument of the 19th century, the church in the museum preserve Abramtsevo (Moscow region), during 2005-2006; 2) a monument of Orthodox church history, a unique soil construction which is called "The Holy Ditch" in the village Diveevo (Nizhny Novgorod region) since 1997 to the present; 3) Church of Our Lady of Kazan also in Diveevo village during 1997-2002. For churches engineering researches are executed, calculations of the bases are made, ways of strengthening the bases are chosen, architectural projects of restoration are created. The church is restored by students under supervision of the experts from the university. The church in Diveevo was partially destroyed during the Soviet period. During restoration high-rise parts of the church were constructed. The works were performed by working restorers under control of the author of article in 2002-2004. Participation of students, masters, graduate students in restoration works had great educational value, gave to young people experience and knowledge. Students studied under professional restorers. Generalization is given in summary. D.S. Likhachyov's theory and our own experience are used. The principle of reconstructing barbarously destroyed engineering constructions, buildings and architectural complexes is formulated. It corresponds to the realities of the 21st century, new technological capabilities and requirements of modern society. Briefly: the reconstructed structure, in our opinion, has to face not only the past, but also the future. It is not always necessary to create the exact copy of the lost construction. Recreating the destroyed construction, it is necessary to apply new materials to increase the reliability and eliminate constructive imperfection of ancient constructions together with preserving old forms. Buildings and constructions have to be under construction anew mainly for performance of former functions, but the buildings have to meet modern requirements on the equipment and internal planning, modern technical norms. The project of the lost building needs to be made taking into account the change of environment. These provisions were successfully incarnated in the process of construction of St. Ditch in Diveev and they are also illustrated on the examples of the reconstruction of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and Frauenkiche in Dresden.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.18-27

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Vestnik MGSU 4/2012
  • Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, chair, Department of Architectural and Construction Design, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 287-49-14; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 17 - 21

The article drives attention to factors of influence produced on the living environment and the humans. The factors in question originate from development of the urban infrastructure. Analysis of actions aimed at improving the ecological conditions of urban environments is provided in the article.
The living environment represents a complex facility in the course of its continuous development. It has a natural and anthropogenic origin. Its origin makes it possible for researchers to ifn links between the physical urban space and its social and hygienic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the living environment not as a densely build structural constituent of a city, but as the environment designated for living that is shaped up by a variety of factors.
The comprehensive impact produced by the environment on humans makes it necessary to develop new methodologies that will assure the complex hygienic assessment of the environment. The assessment will make it possible to research the link between the quality of the environment and the level of health of the population and to identify the number and the sequence of actions aimed at optimizing the environment and the mode of life of inhabitants of present-day megalopolises. The methodology of the per-property assessment of the quality of the urban environment, namely, the microclimate, the lighting, the air quality, must be complemented by its comprehensive assessment.
Local social links must be developed alongside with the urban infrastructure. However, replanning of well-established residential areas, that demonstrate well-established social links and territoriality, reveals strong stressors. Therefore, the recommendation is to retain the areas of psychological invariance in the older sections of big cities to retain well-established and easy-to-recognize planning solutions and social links.
An inhabitant of a big city is subjected both to the impact of anthropogenic factors that are the outcome of the urbanization, and to the impact of psychological factors. Intensive development of megalopolises and growth of cities contribute to formation of anthropogenic factors and produce a negative impact on the ecosystem of the environment. Therefore, the residential housing must be considered as a complex environment that set up special claims. Contemporary housing must be designed with account for the urban environment, including its polluted air, water and soil, limited and transformed city-to-nature links. Development of transportation networks and urban noises require particular attention.
There is an urgent need to improve the architectural and planning patterns of urban territories that need hygienic regulations applicable both to residential and industrial areas, highways, parks, office buildings, leisure and community service buildings, schools, hospitals, convalescence houses, kindergartens, etc.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.17 - 21

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