SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

Vestnik MGSU 1/2015
  • Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Scienc- es, Associate Professor, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 83-89

In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi, which allows receiving good relaxation after a difficult day. Also one more direction will be the organization in occupations of an aquacycling, so-called water trainings in a special bathtub by means of exercise machines for strengthening of health of the population.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.1.83-89

References
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  2. Svintsov A.P., Gusakov S.V., Rybakov Yu.P. Ekspluatatsionnaya nadezhnost’ sanitarno-tekhnicheskoy armatury [Operational Reliability of Sanitary Fittings]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2010, no. 6, pp. 48—53. (In Russian)
  3. Alekseev V.S. Izmeneniya i dopolneniya v Vodnyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Changes and Additions in the Water Code of the Russian Federation]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Equipment]. 2013, no 12, pp. 5—10. (In Russian)
  4. Brodach M.M. Voda — istochnik zhizni i dvizhushchaya sila dlya ustoychivogo razvitiya [Water — a Source of Life and a Driving Force for Sustainable Development]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2009, no. 5, pp. 6—9. (In Russian)
  5. Wang H., Hu C., Hu X., Yang M., Qu J. Effects of Disinfectant and Biofilm on the Corrosion of Cast Iron Pipes in a Reclaimed Water Distribution System. Water Research. 2012, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1070—1078. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.12.001.
  6. Orlov E.V. Sistema vnutrennego vodoprovoda. Novyy tip vodorazbornykh priborov v zdaniyakh. Avtomaty pit’evoy vody [Systems of an Internal Water Supply System. New Type of Water Folding Devices in Buildings. Machine Guns of Drinking Water]. Tekhnika i tekhnologii mira [Equipment and Technologies of the World]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 37—41. (In Russian)
  7. Orlov V.A. Puti obespecheniya sanitarnoy nadezhnosti vodoprovodnykh setey [Ways of Ensuring Sanitary Reliability of Water Supply Systems]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 181—187. (In Russian)
  8. Varbanets M.P., Zurbrügg C., Swartz C., Pronk W. Decentralized Systems for Potable Water and the Potential of Membrane Technology. Water Research, 2009, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 245—265. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.030.
  9. Alekseev V.S. Sovremennoe sostoyanie normativnoy bazy v oblasti vodosnabzheniya [Current State of Regulatory Base in the Field of Water Supply]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Equipment]. 2014, no. 3, pp. 4—14. (In Russian)
  10. Lehtola M.J., Nissinen T.K., Miettinen I.T., Martikainen P.J., Vartiainen T. Removal of Soft Deposits from the Distribution System Improves the Drinking Water Quality. Water Research. 2004, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 601—610. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.054.
  11. Brodach M.M. Zelenoe vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie [Green Water Supply and Water Disposal]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 6—9. (In Russian)
  12. Vreeburg J.H.G., Boxall J.B. Discolouration in Potable Water Distribution Systems: A Review. Water Research. 2007, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 519—529. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.09.028.
  13. Orlov V.A. Taktika renovatsii vodoprovodnykh i vodootvodyashchikh setey [Tactics of Renovation of Water Supply and Water Disposal Systems]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 2, pp. 167—171. (In Russian)
  14. Yang F., Shi B., Gu J., Wang D., Yang M. Morphological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Iron Corrosion Scales Formed under Different Water Source Histories in a Drinking Water Distribution System. Water Research. 2012, vol. 46, no. 16, pp. 5423—5433. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.07.031.
  15. Porshnev V.N., Novikova L.V. Meropriyatiya po energosberezheniyu i snizheniyu poter’ vody v sistemakh gorodskogo vodosnabzheniya [Actions for Energy Saving and Decrease in Water Losses of City Water Supply Systems]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2005, no. 10, pp. 78—84. (In Russian)

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Features of water supply and water disposal of waste disposal systems in buildings

Vestnik MGSU 10/2014
  • Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Scienc- es, Associate Professor, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 141-146

In the article the main design errors of the systems of rubbish disposal over recent years are considered, in which the systems of water supply and water disposal had a supporting role. The main problems arising during operation of dry cold refuse chutes, the deprived new technical solutions on water supply and sewerage are shown. Solutions of the main task of ensuring sanitary and hygienic safety of people living in the building by installation and operation of special clearing devices with a supply of cold and hot water are provided. They allow placing the necessary equipment for cleaning an internal surface of a trunk of a refuse chute in the compact case. It will allow not only to get rid of unpleasant smells, but also will prevent distribution of rodents and insects in the whole residential building. Also this device allows fighting against obstruction of a trunk of a refuse chute large-size subjects that isn’t a rarity recently at operation of a dry cold refuse chute in a building. Much attention is paid to the organization of fire safety in case of possible fire in the collecting garbage camera that can lead to smoking of staircases and poisoning with carbon monoxide of people living in the building. The technical solutions are given, which allow to refuse using sprinkler fire extinguishing system because of its inefficient work for fire extinguishing in the collecting garbage camera. It is offered to pass to the deluge systems, allowing to extinguish a fire either automatically with the help of smoke sensor installed indoors, or by means of the controlling service personnel in the garbage container. The special attention is paid to consideration of the questions of suppression of possible ignition in a refuse chute trunk, which can occur at ejection of a burning subject in the trunk hammered with large-size garbage. As the solution to this problem it is offered to use also drencher fire extinguishing and special gas analyzers for catching of vapors of a caustic smoke, which can suddenly appear and lead to serious incidents.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.10.141-146

References
  1. Orlov E.V. Sistemy musoroudaleniya. Ekspluatatsiya v mnogoetazhnom zhilom dome [Rubbish Disposal Systems. Operation in a Multystoried Building]. Tekhnologii mira [Technologies of the World]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 33—37. (in Russian)
  2. Khramenkov S.V. Energoeffektivnye proekty vodnogo khozyaystva Moskvy [Energy-Saving Projects of Water Management in Moscow]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 14—17. (in Russian)
  3. Isaev V.N., Mkhitaryan M.G. Aktualizatsiya SNiP 2.04.01—85* [Update of Construction Norms and Requirements SNiP 2.04.01—85*]. Truboprovody i ekologiya [Pipelines and Ecology]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 11—15. (in Russian)
  4. Isaev V.N., Davydova A.A. Pit’evoe i khozyaystvennoe vodosnabzhenie [Drinking and Domestic Water Supply]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 2, pp. 148—150. (in Russian)
  5. Husband P.S., Boxall J.B. Asset Deterioration and Discolouration in Water Distribution Systems. Water Research. 2011, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 113—124. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2010.08.021.
  6. Isaev V.N. Sotsial’no-ekonomicheskie aspekty vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya [Social and Economic Aspects of Water Supply and Water Disposal]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2007, no. 1, pp. 8—16. (in Russian)
  7. Shevchenko T.I. Izvlechenie resursov iz otkhodov: motivatsionnye aspekty [Extraction of Resources from Waste: Motivational Aspects]. Tverdye bytovye otkhody [Municipal Solid Waste]. 2010, no. 5 (47), pp. 14—17. (in Russian)
  8. Hong H.C., Mazumder A., Wong M.H., Liang Y. Yield Of Trihalomethanes And Haloacetic Acids upon Chlorinating Algal Cells, and its Prediction via Algal Cellular Biochemical Composition. Water Research. 2008, no. 42, pp. 4941—4948. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.09.019.
  9. Lukasheva E.P. Ot musora k toplivu [From Garbage to Fuel]. Tverdye bytovye otkhody [Municipal Solid Waste]. 2010, no. 4, pp. 58—59. (in Russian)
  10. Antonov A.A., Shilkin N.V. Sistemy musoroudaleniya i bel’eprovody. Osobennosti proektirovaniya i ekspluatatsii [Systems of Rubbish Disposal and Laundry Duct. Features of Design and Operation]. AVOK. 2009, no. 4, pp. 28—42. (in Russian)
  11. Samoylov A.V. Ustanovka i rekonstruktsiya sistem musoroudaleniya. Problemy i puti resheniya [Installation and Reconstruction of the Systems of Rubbish Disposal. Problems and Solutions]. AVOK. 2010, no. 1, pp. 52—62. (in Russian)
  12. Azza M. Abd El-Aty, Mohamed B.M. Ibrahim, Mohamed A. El-Dib, Emad K. Radwan. Influence of Chlorine on Algae as Precursors for Trihalomethane and Haloacetic Acid Production. World Applied Sciences Journal. 2009, vol. 6, no. 9, pp. 1215—1220.
  13. Orlov E.V. Sistema bel’eprovoda v zdaniyakh. Ustroystvo i printsip raboty [System of Laundry Duct in Buildings. Arrangement and Principle of Work]. Tekhnologii mira [Technologies of the World]. 2013, no. 7, pp. 37—39. (in Russian)
  14. Min B., Logan B.E. Continuous Electricity Generation from Domestic Wastewater and Organic Substrates in a Flat Plate Microbial Fuel Cell. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2004, no. 38 (21), pp. 5809—5814. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0491026.
  15. Vreeburg J.H.G., Schippers D., Verberk J.Q.J.C., van Dijk J.C. Impact of Particles on Sediment Accumulation in a Drinking Water Distribution System. Water Research. 2008, vol. 42, no. 16, pp. 4233—4242. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.05.024.

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