SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

Methods of reduction of power consumption for cooling residential buildings in the hotand dry climate of northern regions of Tajikistan

Vestnik MGSU 9/2013
  • Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich - Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Senior Lecturer, Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 226 Lenina st., Khujand, 735700, Tajikistan; applicant, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 79-85

Reduction of energy consumption by devices designated for cooling residential buildings in the hot and dry climate of Central Asia is a most important challenge. The author uses a large apartment building (105 series), built in the 1980ies in the city of Khujand, to study the energy consumption required to cool the building after its renovation and modernization. Basic methods of reducing energy consumption for cooling buildings in hot, dry climates were applied. According to the findings of the research performed using a model residential house, ambient solar heat gain is reduced by 65 % during the hot season lasting from April to September. To cool the building, old windows are replaced by new insulated ones having a low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC — 0.4) and external awnings are installed to protect windows looking to the West.The typical internal room temperature of +25 °C is assumed for the thermal calculations in the summer conditions. In summer, the outside temperature exceeds 40 °C in the northern regions of Tajikistan. A typical difference between the inside and outside air temperature is 15 °C. This extensive temperature difference has a negative effect on the human body. Frequently, the human body has no time to adapt to rapid temperature changes. Aged and sick people are especially sensitive to rapid temperature changes. They are more likely to experience headaches, exacerbated hypertension, atherosclerosis and other diseases. Moderate fluctuations of the air temperature are preferable, as they reduce pressure on the body's thermoregulatory mechanisms.It is noteworthy that people who remain inside buildings are not isolated from the external environment, and they must be careful to avoid sudden temperature changes. In the European regulations aimed at warm, rather than hot summer conditions, internal residential air temperature of +25 °C is considered comfortable. On the contrary, the internal temperature in residential buildings in northern Tajikistan varies from +27 °C to +28 °C. High temperatures can cause significant discomfort in the hot and dry climate like the one in Tajikistan.It is recommended to remain indoors during the day, to keep the windows open at night, and to run air conditioners in residential buildings in summer at certain time intervals.The author proposes a method of optimization of the design temperature of residential rooms using PMV and PPD indices. Optimal air circulation through open windows at night is identified to ensure comfort in modernized residential buildings.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.9.79-85

References
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  3. Obolenskiy N.V. Uchet pryamogo solnechnogo sveta pri proektirovanii zdaniy v yuzhnykh rayonakh [Taking Account of Direct Sunlight in the Design of Buildings in Southern Regions]. Promyshlennoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial Engineering]. 1965, no. 1, pp. 12—14.
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CREATION OF A COMFORTABLE ENVIRONMENT IN PREMISES OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WITH ACCOUNT FOR ARCHITECTURAL, ENGINEERING AND ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Saltykov Ivan Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 189 - 196

The author provides his multiple-factor approach to the assessment and creation of a comfortable
indoor environment with account for architectural, engineering and ecological parameters.
Architectural parameters include indoor space arrangement, color solutions, etc. The engineering
approach contemplates favorable acoustic, thermal, humidity and lighting conditions. Nowadays,
the problem of the indoor microclimate is resolvable through the assessment of its conditions and
further assurance of comfort with the help of multiple advanced engineering solutions. Civil engineering
solutions may also bring an adequate level of comfort through the application of effi cient
building materials. The ecological safety of any premises has an impact not only on the sense of
comfort, but on the physical stamina and health of residents. The comfort of the inhabited environment
also means appropriate electro-magnetic properties and adequate aeration.
Research projects and advanced solutions are to make their contribution into development of
new criteria of assessment of comfort, particularly, in the inadequate ecological and social urban
environment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.189 - 196

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  2. MGSN 3.01—01. Zhilye zdaniya. [Moscow City Building Requirements 3.01-01. Residential Buildings.] Moscow, 2001.
  3. Glazychev V.L. Technology of Environment Design. Master-class. Personal web-site of V.L. Glazychev. Available at: www.glazychev.ru. Date of access: 21.03.12.
  4. Nikerov V.A. Ekologichnyy dom glazami fi zika: sovety fi zika [Ecological House as Viewed by the Physicist: the Physicist’s Advice]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1992.
  5. Gagarin V.G., Zemtsov V.A., Igumnov N.M. Ravnoeffektivnost’ okonnykh blokov po parametram teplozashchity i svetopropuskaniya [Equal Effi ciency of Window Blocks in Terms of Thermal Resistance and Light Conductivity]. Krovel’nye i izolyatsionnye materialy [Roofi ng and Insulation Materials]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 41—43.
  6. Shadrin A.S., Shekhter F.L. Povyshenie effektivnosti resheniy bokovogo estestvennogo osveshcheniya [Improvement of Effi ciency of Lateral Daylight Solutions]. Svetotehnika [Illumination Engineering]. Moscow, 1990, no. 10, pp.
  7. Stetskiy S.V. K voprosu o sub”ektivnoy otsenke komfortnosti vnutrenney mikroklimaticheskoy sredy [Subjective Assessment of the Comfort of the Indoor Environment]. Stroitel’nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XX veka [Construction Materials, Equipment and Technologies of the 20th Century]. 2008, no. 12, pp. 63—65.
  8. Kirilyuk M.A. Otsenka urovnya komfortnosti zhilishchno-kommunal’nogo i sotsial’no-bytovogo obustroystva sel’skogo poseleniya [Assessment of Comfort of Residential Housing, Utilities and Social Infrastructure of a Rural Settlement]. Mehanizatsiya stroitel’stva [Building Mechanization]. 2010, no. 12, pp. 4—6.
  9. Myagkov M.S. Gorod, arkhitektura, chelovek i klimat [City, Architecture, Person, Climate]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2007, p. 343.
  10. Kholshchevnikov V.V., Lukov A.V. Klimat mestnosti i mikroklimat pomeshcheniy [Outdoor and Indoor Climate]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2001.

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GREEN TECHNOLOGIES OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT: CONCEPTS, TERMS, STANDARDS

Vestnik MGSU 4/2017 Volume 12
  • Telichenko Valeriy Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, President, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, Russian Federation, 129337.

Pages 364-372

The article deals with the main principles, concepts, terms that characterize the scientific approach to the formation of a safe and comfortable living environment on the basis of the development and wide application of the sustainable development principles in urban development practice. Definitions of the basic concepts related to the tasks of developing green technologies of the living environment are proposed. The purpose of the study is to select methodological tools for creating a national system of green standardization and certification of urban development objects. This requires technical regulation and standardization; analysis and management of object life cycles; integrated safety, building materials science; energy efficiency and energy saving; development and application of green standards; BIM-technology; rating systems of green certification; construction systems. It is established that the main characteristics that define the “green technologies” concept are energy efficiency, safety, non-wasting, comfort. The factors preventing the achievement of the stated purposes are shown. Positive shifts in this direction and examples of practical implementation of voluntary certification systems for urban development projects have been noted.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.4.364-372

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