INFLUENCE PRODUCED BY THE URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ON THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT

Vestnik MGSU 4/2012
  • Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, chair, Department of Architectural and Construction Design, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 287-49-14; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 17 - 21

The article drives attention to factors of influence produced on the living environment and the humans. The factors in question originate from development of the urban infrastructure. Analysis of actions aimed at improving the ecological conditions of urban environments is provided in the article.
The living environment represents a complex facility in the course of its continuous development. It has a natural and anthropogenic origin. Its origin makes it possible for researchers to ifn links between the physical urban space and its social and hygienic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the living environment not as a densely build structural constituent of a city, but as the environment designated for living that is shaped up by a variety of factors.
The comprehensive impact produced by the environment on humans makes it necessary to develop new methodologies that will assure the complex hygienic assessment of the environment. The assessment will make it possible to research the link between the quality of the environment and the level of health of the population and to identify the number and the sequence of actions aimed at optimizing the environment and the mode of life of inhabitants of present-day megalopolises. The methodology of the per-property assessment of the quality of the urban environment, namely, the microclimate, the lighting, the air quality, must be complemented by its comprehensive assessment.
Local social links must be developed alongside with the urban infrastructure. However, replanning of well-established residential areas, that demonstrate well-established social links and territoriality, reveals strong stressors. Therefore, the recommendation is to retain the areas of psychological invariance in the older sections of big cities to retain well-established and easy-to-recognize planning solutions and social links.
An inhabitant of a big city is subjected both to the impact of anthropogenic factors that are the outcome of the urbanization, and to the impact of psychological factors. Intensive development of megalopolises and growth of cities contribute to formation of anthropogenic factors and produce a negative impact on the ecosystem of the environment. Therefore, the residential housing must be considered as a complex environment that set up special claims. Contemporary housing must be designed with account for the urban environment, including its polluted air, water and soil, limited and transformed city-to-nature links. Development of transportation networks and urban noises require particular attention.
There is an urgent need to improve the architectural and planning patterns of urban territories that need hygienic regulations applicable both to residential and industrial areas, highways, parks, office buildings, leisure and community service buildings, schools, hospitals, convalescence houses, kindergartens, etc.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.17 - 21

References
  1. Giyasov A. Rol' mnogoetazhnoy zastroyki v regulirovanii teplovogo rezhima gorodov s zharkoshtilevym profilem klimata (na primere g. Dushanbe) [Role of Multi-storied Buildings in Regulation of the Heat Mode of Cities in the Hot-Doldrum Climate (exemplified by the town of Dushanbe). Moscow, 1983.
  2. Gubernskiy Yu.D., Litskevich V.K. Zhilische dlya cheloveka [Dwelling for the Man]. Мoscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1991.
  3. Goromosov M.S. Mikroklimat zhilisch i ego gigienicheskoe normirovanie [Microclimate of Dwellings and Its Hygienic Regulation]. Moscow, Medgiz Publ., 1963.

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GREEN TECHNOLOGIES OF LIVING ENVIRONMENT: CONCEPTS, TERMS, STANDARDS

Vestnik MGSU 4/2017 Volume 12
  • Telichenko Valeriy Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Honored Worker of Science of the Russian Federation, President, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, Russian Federation, 129337.

Pages 364-372

The article deals with the main principles, concepts, terms that characterize the scientific approach to the formation of a safe and comfortable living environment on the basis of the development and wide application of the sustainable development principles in urban development practice. Definitions of the basic concepts related to the tasks of developing green technologies of the living environment are proposed. The purpose of the study is to select methodological tools for creating a national system of green standardization and certification of urban development objects. This requires technical regulation and standardization; analysis and management of object life cycles; integrated safety, building materials science; energy efficiency and energy saving; development and application of green standards; BIM-technology; rating systems of green certification; construction systems. It is established that the main characteristics that define the “green technologies” concept are energy efficiency, safety, non-wasting, comfort. The factors preventing the achievement of the stated purposes are shown. Positive shifts in this direction and examples of practical implementation of voluntary certification systems for urban development projects have been noted.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.4.364-372

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