ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Interpretation features of classical orders of Vincenzo Brenna in the architecture of St. Petersburg of the late 18th century

Vestnik MGSU 4/2015
  • Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna - Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural and Town-Planning Heritage, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE), 4 2-ya Krasnoarmeyskaya str., Saint Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 15-25

The article analyzes the architectural details and column orders construction of an outstanding architect of Pavlovsk’s classicism Vincenzo Brenna. Architectural forms creation is an important but not well investigated area in the history of architecture. Knowledge of architectural elements enables us to better understand and explore the creativity of the architect, which is necessary for époque identifying and determining the authenticity of a monument and its elements. The name of Vincenzo Brenna stands apart among the architects of the late 18th century. Works of Brenna are significantly different from the works of the other architects of the period of strict classicism. His works were severely criticized and were almost forgotten, the authorship was disputable and the projects were fathered to other architects. Though the art works of Brenna are very significant for the image of Saint Petersburg. The article identifies individual elements of architectural decisions in the orders and decorations of Brenna’s facades manifested in the Baroque freedom of drawing elements order in combination with the classical solution rigor.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.4.15-25

References
  1. Grabar’ I.E. Istoriya russkogo iskusstva. T. 3. Peterburgskaya arkhitektura v XVIII i XIX veke [History of Russian Art. Vol. 3. Architecture of Saint Petersburg in 18th and 19th Century]. Moscow, I. Knebel’ Publ., 1912, 584 p. (In Russian)
  2. Lansere N.E. Vinchentso Brenna [Vincenzo Brenna]. Saint Petersburg, Kolo Publ., 2006, 286 p. (In Russian)
  3. Shvidkovskiy D.O. Arkhitekturnaya sud’ba Pavla I [Architectural Destiny of Paul I]. Rossiya v kraskakh [Russia in Colors]. Available at: http://ricolor.org/history/mn/pv/arh/. Date of access: 12.01.2015. (In Russian)
  4. Shvidkovskiy D.O. Anglo-russkie svyazi v arkhitekture vtoroy poloviny XVIII — nachala XIX stoletiya : avtoreferat dissertatsii doktora iskusstvovedeniya [Britain-Russia Relations in the Architecture of the Second Half of 18 — Early 19 Century : Thesis of the Doctor of Art Criticism]. Moscow, VNIITAG Publ., 1994, 47 p. (In Russian)
  5. Shuyskiy V.K. Vinchentso Brenna [Vincenzo Brenna]. Zodchie Sankt-Peterburga. XVIII vek [Architects of Saint Petersburg. 18th Century]. Saint Petersburg, 1997, pp. 770—827. (In Russian)
  6. Shuyskiy V.K. Zolotoy vek barokko i klassitsizma v Sankt-Peterburge [Golden Age of Baroque and Classicism in Saint Petersburg]. Moscow, Tsentrpoligraf Publ.; Saint Petersburg, MIM-Del’ta Publ., 2008, 288 p. (In Russian)
  7. Shvidkovskiy D.O., Revzina Yu.E. Kogda rodilas’ klassicheskaya arkhitektura i est’ li u nee budushchee? [When the Classical Architecture was Born and What Kind of Future Doest it Have?]. Dom Burganova. Prostranstvo kul’tury [The House of Burganov. Cultural Space]. 2014, no. 2, pp. 15—32. (In Russian)
  8. Vin’ola Dzh. Pravilo pyati orderov arkhitektury : sbornik [The Rool of Five Orders in the Architecture]. Translated from Italian. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya akademiya arkhitektury Publ., 1939, 168 p. (Klassiki teorii arkhitektury [Classics of Architectural Theory]). (In Russian)
  9. Palladio A. Chetyre knigi ob arkhitekture [Four Books on Architecture]. Translated from Italian. by I.V. Zholtovskiy. Reprint. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989, 350 p. (In Russian)
  10. Barabanova O.A. Dzhakomo Kvarengi i Klod-Nikolya Ledu [Giacomo Quarenghi and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta. Seriya 2: Gumanitarnye nauki [News of the Ural Federal University. Series 2. Humanities]. 2006, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 119—130. (In Russian)
  11. Ketova K.S. Istoriograficheskiy obzor i analiz stepeni izuchennosti biografii grafa F.B. Rastrelli [Historiographical Review and Analysis of Exploration Degree of Count F.B. Rastrelli Biography]. Zhurnal nauchnykh publikatsiy aspirantov i doktorantov [Journal of Scientific Publications of Postgraduate and Doctoral Srudents]. 2011, no. 4 (58), pp. 40—43. (In Russian)
  12. Blondel F. Cours d’architecture. Paris, 1675—1683. Available at: http://archgrafika.ru/news/francois_blondel_cours_d_architecture_enseigne_dans_l_academie_royale_d_architecture/2008-11-11-18. Date of access: 12.01.2015.
  13. Blondel J.-F. Cours d’Architecture ou traite de la decoration, distribution et construction de batimens. Paris, vol. 9, pp. 1771—1777. Available at: http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k857044. Date of access: 12.01.2015.
  14. Laugier M.-A. Essay on Architecture. Paris, 1755. Available at: https://archive.org/stream/essayonarchitect00laugrich#page/n7/mode/2up. Date of access: 12.01.2015.
  15. Shvidkovskiy D.O. Puti razvitiya rossiyskoy arkhitektury [Ways of Russian Architectural Development]. Prostranstvo i Vremya [Space and Time]. 2013, no. 1 (11), pp. 103—116. (In Russian)
  16. Shvidkovskiy D.O. Ekaterina II i Pavel I : Politicheskie otnosheniya v arkhitekture [Katherine II and Paul I : Political Relations in Architecture]. Istoricheskiy zhurnal: nauchnye issledovaniya [Historical Journal: Scientific Investigations]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 84—94. (In Russian)
  17. Sementsov S.V. Etapy formirovaniya prostranstvennoy sredy Sankt-Peterburga [Stages of Space Environment Formation in Saint Peterburg]. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov [Proceedings of Civil Engineers]. 2006, no. 2, pp. 15—20. (In Russian)
  18. Nikiforova L.V. Kul’turnaya istoriya ordera: muzhskoe/zhenskoe v obrazakh ordernoy arkhitektury XVIII stoletiya [Cultural History of the Order: Male/Female in Order Architecture Forms of the 18th Century]. Obshchestvo. Sreda. Razvitie [Society. Environment. Development]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 158—162. (In Russian)
  19. Lebedeva G.S. Arkhitekturnaya teoriya Vitruviya [Architectural Theory of Vitruvius]. Iskusstvoznanie [Art Criticism]. 2009, no. 3—4, pp. 5—34. (In Russian)
  20. Kal’nitskaya E.Ya. Tsvetnoy kamen’ v istorii i restavratsii Mikhaylovskogo zamka [Colored Stones in History and Restoration of St. Michael’s Castle]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta. Seriya 2: Gumanitarnye nauki [News of the Ural Federal University. Series 2. Humanities]. 2008, vol. 59, no. 16, pp. 259—269. (In Russian)
  21. Mikhaylovskiy zamok. Restavratsiya i novye proekty v istoricheskikh inter’erakh [St. Michael’s Castle. Restoration and New Projects in Historical Interiors]. Vestnik. Zodchiy. 21 vek [Bulletin. Architect. 21st Century]. 2014, no. 4 (53), pp. 60—65. (In Russian)

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Moulds and profiles of the building facades of St. Petersburg of the 18th century

Vestnik MGSU 12/2015
  • Voznyak Ekaterina Ryurikovna - Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural and Town-Planning Heritage, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPSUACE), 4 2-ya Krasnoarmeyskaya str., Saint Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 13-24

In the article the author underlines the importance of details (moulds and profiles) for the architects of previous times. The architects of the 17th-19th centuries expressed their creative and filosofic position choosing some concrete example of the great theorists of the past when constructing moulds and orders. We should note that the negative attitude to Classicism theory reasoned in the lack of investigations of the architectural details of the buildings of the 18th-19th centuries, in particular the ones in Saint Petersburg. At the present moment the interest to studying the architectural theories and forms is reappearing both in Russia and in Europe. The article considers the architectural moulds of the eighteenth century buildings of St. Petersburg, examples of their construction in each stylistic period. The analysis shows the significant differences of the Russian moulds drawings from the recommendations of classical treatises of the Renaissance and educational counterparts. The author offers the basic analysis of the characteristic features and data elements for each stylistic period in the architecture of St. Petersburg of the 18th century, as well as a unique handwriting of the architects who worked in that era.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.12.13-24

References
  1. Blondel F. Cours d’architecture. Paris, 1675—1683. Available at: http://www.e-rara.ch.
  2. Aviler S.A. Cours d’architecture: qui comprend les ordres de Vignole. Paris, N. Langlois, 1710. Available at: http: //architectura.cesr.univ-tours.fr.
  3. Sturm L.C. Vollständige Anweisung Regierungs- Land- und Rath-Häuser, wie auch Kauff-Häuser und Börsen starck, bequem und zierlich anzugeben. Augspurg, 1718, ETH-Bibliothek Zurich. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3931/e-rara-11321.
  4. Blondel J.-F. Cours d’Architecture ou traite de la decoration, distribution et construction de batimens. Paris, vol. 9, pp. 1771—1777. Available at: http://www.e-rara.ch.
  5. Neufforge J.-F. Recueil Elementaire d’Architecture. Paris, 1757. Vol. 1—8.
  6. Laugier M.-A. Essay on Architecture. Paris, 1755, ETH-Bibliothek Zurich. Available at: http://www.e-rara.ch.
  7. Bernd E. Architectural Theory. Taschen, 2011, 848 p.
  8. Evsina N.A. Arkhitekturnaya teoriya v Rossii XVIII v. [Architectural Theory in Russia of the 18th Century]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1975, 262 p. (In Russian)
  9. Sementsov S.V. Etapy formirovaniya prostranstvennoy sredy Sankt-Peterburga [Stages of Space Environment Formation in Saint Peterburg]. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov [Proceedings of Civil Engineers]. 2006, no. 2, pp. 15—20. (In Russian)
  10. Shvidkovskiy D.O., Revzina Yu.E. Kogda rodilas’ klassicheskaya arkhitektura i est’ li u nee budushchee? [When the Classical Architecture was Born and What Kind of Future Doest it Have?]. Dom Burganova. Prostranstvo kul’tury [The House of Burganov. Cultural Space]. 2014, no. 2, pp. 15—32. (In Russian)
  11. Vin’ola Dzh. Pravilo pyati orderov arkhitektury : sbornik [The Rool of Five Orders in the Architecture]. Translated from Italian. Moscow, Vsesoyuznaya akademiya arkhitektury Publ., 1938, 168 p. (Klassiki teorii arkhitektury [Classics of Architectural Theory]) (In Russian)
  12. Palladio A. Chetyre knigi ob arkhitekture [Four Books on Architecture]. Translated from Italian. by I.V. Zholtovskiy. Reprint. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989, 352 p. (In Russian)
  13. Barabanova O.A. Dzhakomo Kvarengi i Klod-Nikolya Ledu [Giacomo Quarenghi and Claude-Nicolas Ledoux]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta. Seriya 2: Gumanitarnye nauki [News of the Ural Federal University. Series 2. Humanities]. 2006, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 119—130. (In Russian)
  14. Ketova K.S. Istoriograficheskiy obzor i analiz stepeni izuchennosti biografii grafa F.B. Rastrelli [Historiographical Review and Analysis of Exploration Degree of Count F.B. Rastrelli Biography]. Zhurnal nauchnykh publikatsiy aspirantov i doktorantov [Journal of Scientific Publications of Postgraduate and Doctoral Srudents]. 2011, no. 4 (58), pp. 40—43. (In Russian)
  15. Shvidkovskiy D.O. Puti razvitiya rossiyskoy arkhitektury [Ways of Russian Architectural Development]. Prostranstvo i Vremya [Space and Time]. 2013, no. 1 (11), pp. 103—116. (In Russian)
  16. Shvidkovskiy D.O. Ekaterina II i Pavel I : Politicheskie otnosheniya v arkhitekture [Katherine II and Paul I : Political Relations in Architecture]. Istoricheskiy zhurnal: nauchnye issledovaniya [Historical Journal: Scientific Investigations]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 84—94. (In Russian)
  17. Lebedeva G.S. Arkhitekturnaya teoriya Vitruviya [Architectural Theory of Vitruvius]. Iskusstvoznanie [Art Criticism]. 2009, no. 3—4, pp. 5—34. (In Russian)
  18. Milyugina E.G. N.A. L’vov — izdatel’ «Russkogo Palladiya» [Lvov is a Publisher of “Russian Palladium”]. Izvestiya Ural’skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya 2. Gumanitarnye nauki [News of Ural State University. Series 2. Humanities]. 2009, no. 1/2 (63), pp. 256—265. (In Russian)
  19. Pozzo A. Perspectiva pictorum atque architectorum. Augsburg, 1709. Available at: http://digi.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/diglit/pozzo1709bd2.
  20. Guarini G. Architettura civile del padre D. Guarino Guarini. Torino, 1737, ETH-Bibliothek Zürich. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3931/e-rara-31.
  21. Voznyak E.R. Osnovy teorii arkhitekturnykh form istoricheskikh zdaniy [Theory Foundations of the Architectural Forms of Historical Buildings]. Saint Petersburg, Kolo Publ., 2015, 191 p. (In Russian)
  22. Pluzhnikov V.I. Rasprostranenie zapadnogo dekora v petrovskom zodchestve [Distribution of the Western Décor in Peter the Great Architecture]. Drevnerusskoe iskusstvo. Zarubezhnye svyazi [Old Russian Art. Foreign Connections]. Moscow, 1975, pp. 362—370. (In Russian)
  23. Ukhnalev A.E. Osobennosti stilisticheskoy situatsii v arkhitekture Peterburga pervoy chetverti XVIII veka [Features of the Stylistic Situation in the Architecture of St. Petersburg of the First Quarter of the 18th Century]. Izvestiya Rossiyskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta im. A.I. Gertsena [Scientific Journal of Herzen University]. 2011, no. 140, pp. 136—148. (In Russian)
  24. Ukhnalev A.E. Metamorfozy «petrovskogo barokko». Sud’ba «bol’shikh» stiley v arkhitekture pervonachal’nogo Peterburga [Metamorphoses of “Peter the Great Baroque”. The Destiny of “Great” Styles in the Architecture of the Original Saint Petersburg]. Iskusstvoznanie [Art Studies]. 2011, no. 1—2, pp. 228—247. (In Russian)

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Inspection problems of rural stone churches

Vestnik MGSU 2/2016
  • Cherkasova Lyudmila Igorevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Soil Mechanics and Geomechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Paushkin Aleksandr Glebovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Alekseev German Valer’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 74-85

The authors describe the reasons for the destruction and the difficult process of restoring old stone churches built before 1917. The article notes the difference between these processes in the village and in the city. In the villages a large number of churches are in emergency condition, but continue to be operated as intended, i.e. for divine service. The article gives the classification of the causes for the destruction process of old rural churches. At the present time old temples usually destruct due to the lack of timely rehabilitation works. Recovery is hindered by the high cost of a comprehensive inspection and restoration. The work can be greatly reduced if the goal is not restoration, but conservation and prevention of an emergency condition. The authors come to the conclusion that the survey of rural churches as opposed to urban ones has the main goals: to determine the state category, to provide space in which the religious services may be held, for example, in the summer, and to provide materials for preservation of the part of the building, the operation of which is impossible. The problems of preservation of the architectural decor and restoration of items are not considered in such an inspection. Such a survey can be called “Express survey”. Express survey is conducted for a short time with a small group of specialists. The examination includes visual examination, thorough photographic images, study of the geological history of the area, interviews with the residents, description of the defects, which reduce the reliability of the building, recommendations for the strengthening of structures, conservation and monitoring frequencies. The works on measurement and determination of the strength of materials must be minimized. For more efficient operation, it is proposed to amend the regulations or create a separate document in addition to the known norms regulating the work using a rapid survey.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.2.74-85

References
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  2. Chernyshev S.N. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie usloviya, fundamenty i gruntovye sooruzheniya Svyato-Troitskogo Serafimo-Diveevskogo zhenskogo Monastyrya [Engineering-Geological Conditions, Bases and Soil Constructions of Sacred and Troitsk Serafimo-Diveevsky Convent]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 77—85. (In Russian)
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  17. Slukin V.M. Nerazrushayushchie metody issledovaniya pamyatnikov arkhitektury [Nondestructive Research Methods of Architectural Monuments]. Sverdlovsk, Izdatel’stvo Ural’skogo universiteta Publ., 1988, 218 p. (In Russian)
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  19. Paushkin A.G., Cherkasova L.I., Ivanov M.N. K voprosu o kachestve sovremennykh stroitel’nykh norm [To a Question of the Quality of Modern Construction Norms]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 11, pp. 55—58. (In Russian)
  20. Paushkin A.G., Cherkasova L.I., Ivanov M.N. O sistemnykh kriteriyakh opredeleniya kategoriy tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya ob”ektov kul’turnogo naslediya po stepeni iznosa i povrezhdeniya [On System Criteria for Determining the Categories of the Technical Condition of Objects of Cultural Heritage According to the Degree of Wear and Damage]. Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic Series]. 2014, no. 4 (35), article 19. Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/?source=4&articleno=1813. (In Russian)

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