SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS.ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

Environmental impact estimation of municipal solidwaste treatment based on their composition and properties

Vestnik MGSU 2/2014
  • Il'inykh Galina Viktorovna - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNIPU) Senior Lecturer, Department of Environmental Protection, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNIPU), 29 Komsomolskiy prospect, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korotaev Vladimir Nikolayevich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNIPU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Vice-rector for Science and Innovations, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNIPU), 29 Komsomolskiy prospect, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vaysman Yakov Iosifovich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNIPU) Doctor of Medical Sciences, Department of Environmental Protection, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNIPU), 29 Komsomolskiy prospect, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 131-139

Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a significant environmental and sanitarian problem for urban areas. Different, often alternative, measures are considered in order to reduce the environmental impact of MSW management system, so adequate technique of comparative assessment of their environmental efficiency is needed. The problem is that waste composition, dangerous and organic matter content are often ignored when environmental impacts of MSW management system are calculated. Therefore, an algorithm of environmental impact estimation of municipal solid waste treatment based on their composition and properties is a question of considerable importance.The main difficulty in performing environmental impact calculation in compliance with MSW composition is the evaluation of the emissions per waste unit. Waste component content and biodegradable carbon content in every component are taken into account as basic waste features for emission estimation. Methane generation potential is calculated as a function of biodegradable carbon content.Environmental impacts of waste treatment on manual sorting plant in Yekaterinburg are given as an example. Waste composition analysis was carried out there in 2012. Material flow analysis allowed clarifying mass balance of the process. About 10 % of income waste mass are going out of the waste management system as a recyclables and determine the decreasing of environmental impacts. 1.24 % of biodegradable carbon don’t reach landfills, so it means that production of about ten cubic meters of biogas per ton of income MSW are prevented. When converting this data in money, it results in 47.1 rubles per ton of MSW or about 4.7 million rubles annually.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.2.131-139

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Problems and prospects of nuclear power plants construction

Vestnik MGSU 2/2014
  • Pergamenshhik Boris Klimentyevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Thermal and Nuclear Power Plants Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 140-153

60 years ago, in July 1954 in the city of Obninsk near Moscow the world's first nuclear power plant was commissioned with a capacity of 5 MW. Today more than 430 nuclear units with a total capacity of almost 375000 MW are in operation in dozens of the countries worldwide. 72 electrical power units are currently under construction, 8 of them are located in the Russian Federation. There will be no alternative to nuclear energy in the coming decades. Among the factors contributing to the construction of nuclear power plants reckon limited fossil fuel supply, lack of air and primarily carbon dioxide emissions. The holding back factors are breakdown, hazard, radioactive wastes, high construction costs and long construction period. Nuclear accidents in the power plant of «Three-Mile-Island» in the USA, in Chernobyl and in Japan have resulted in termination of construction projects and closure of several nuclear power plants in the Western Europe. The safety systems have become more complex, material consumption and construction costs have significantly increased. The success of modern competing projects like EPR-1600, AP1000, ABWR, national ones AES-2006 and VVER-TOI, as well as several others, depends not only on structural and configuration but also on construction and technological solutions. The increase of the construction term by one year leads to growth of estimated total costs by 3—10 %. The main improvement potentials include external plate reinforcement, pre-fabricated large-block assembly, production and installation of the equipment packages and other. One of the crucial success factors is highly skilled civil engineers training.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.2.140-153

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