### Modern scientific journal of the new generation and best academic traditions

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In research field of development processes of architectural and construction decisions (ACD) there is already very considerable scientific, normative and technical material. And still in the end of the research boom in this area (the 90th) many authors stated their weak return in practical design. High methodological potential gives understanding of the act of ACD formation as a special kind of activity, and its structure - as historical phenomenon that allows to put two main methodological principles in the basis of the research: the principle of activity and the principle of level organization of historically formed objects. As a result it was succeeded to reveal 6 main stages of historical development of ACD formation process and 6 levels of its modern organization. Origin stage - is the transition from animal to human construction and emergence of the first stage of ACD formation - a measurement. The reproductive stage is characterized by centuries-old reproduction of steady volume forms of constructions. At a composite stage professional presentation detaches external form of a construction from architectural and construction actions and techniques. There occurs transformation into a subject of architectural and construction activity and creation of a method of composition on this basis. At a constructive stage engineers are involved in construction process, there is a change of style of thinking, emergence of construction designs and emergence of a new function of ACD means of configuration, and, at last, final allocation and separation of architectural and construction design from construction. Technological stage is a product of industrialization of construction on which systematization is carried out not only on the level of subject, but also in respect to the operational contents that leads to emergence of ACD program formation. At the sixth, methodological stage of development of ASP, a leading way change of the ACD formation becomes a necessary condition of its working implementation, and so-called "designing designing" becomes its necessary stage. Achievements of each of the revealed stages don't disappear, and pass into a new stage of development as a subordinated level, carrying out the certain function available to its opportunities. Each subsequent level differs from the previous one, first, in the wider covered subject content of activity of ACD formation, secondly, increase in the depth of penetration into ACD problem, and, thirdly, the contents, which is meant by the concept "architectural and construction solution" at each level.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.7-15

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Pages 16-24

In the article the problem of bending of circular axially loaded flexible plate during creep was solved. The solution is reduced to a system of two nonlinear differential equations. These equations are suitable for arbitrary dependencies between tensions and creep deformations. The system was solved by the method of successive approximations in conjunction with the finite difference method. Calculations were performed with the help of software package Matlab. We considered round rigidly clamped along the contour plate, which was loaded by the load uniformly distributed over the area. Polymer EDB-10 was taken as a material, which obeys the Maxwell-Gurevich physical law. Creep strains at each point of time were found using linear approximation. In order to verify the correctness of the program, we compared the elastic solution with the result of Professor A. Volmir. He solved this problem by the method of Bubnov-Galerkin only taking into account the geometric nonlinearity. Our results are in good agreement with the solution of. A. Volmir.It is revealed that the calculation excluding geometric nonlinearity gives high values of deflections. The analysis of the equations for t→∞ showed that in linear geometric theory stresses across the thickness of the plate at the end of the creep change linearly. Also the formula for long cylindrical rigidity was obtained. This formula allows us to find the deflection at the end of the creep process, if we know the elastic solution. It is shown that long cylindrical rigidity depends not only on the long elastic modulus v , but also on short elastic modulus v and Poisson's ratio v . It was also found out that in case of high loads stress distribution across the thickness is nonlinear.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.16-24

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- Teregulov I.G. Izgib i ustoychivost' tonkikh plastin i obolochek pri polzuchesti [Bending and Stability of Thin Plates and Shells under Creep]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1969, 206 p.
- Kachanov L.M. Teoriya polzuchesti [Creep Theory]. Fizmatgiz, 1960, 680 p.
- Nemirovskiy Yu.V., Yankovskiy A.P. Ravnonapryazhennoye armirovaniye metallokompozitnykh plastin pri ustanovivsheysya polzuchesti [Equal-stress Reinforcement of Metal Composite Plates at Steady Creep]. Problemy prochnosti i plastichnosti [Problems of Strength and Plasticity]. 2007, vol. 69, pp. 70—78.
- Lellep Ya. Ustanovivshayasya polzuchest' kruglykh i kol'tsevykh plastin, vypolnennykh iz raznomodul'nogo neuprugogo materiala [Steady Creep of Round and Circular Plates Made of Inelastic Multimodulus Material]. Uchenye zapiski Tartuskogo universiteta [Teaching Notes of Tartu University]. 1974, no. 342, pp. 323—333.
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Pages 25-34

We have already considered an introduction of reinforcements in the variational-difference method (VDM) of shells analysis with complex shape. At the moment only ribbed shells of revolution and shallow shells can be calculated with the help of developed analytical and finite-difference methods. Ribbed shells of arbitrary shape can be calculated only using the finite element method (FEM). However there are problems, when using FEM, which are absent in finite- and variational-difference methods: rigid body motion; conforming trial functions; parameterization of a surface; independent stress strain state. In this regard stiffeners are entered in VDM. VDM is based on the Lagrange principle - the principle of minimum total potential energy. Stress-strain state of ribs is described by the Kirchhoff-Clebsch theory of curvilinear bars: tension, bending and torsion of ribs are taken into account. Stress-strain state of shells is described by the Kirchhoff-Love theory of thin elastic shells. A position of points of the middle surface is defined by curvilinear orthogonal coordinates α, β. Curved ribs are situated along coordinate lines. Strain energy of ribs is added into the strain energy to account for ribs. A matrix form of strain energy of ribs is formed similar to a matrix form of the strain energy of the shell. A matrix of geometrical characteristics of a rib is formed from components of matrices of geometric characteristics of a shell. A matrix of mechanical characteristics of a rib contains rib’s eccentricity and geometrical characteristics of a rib’s section. Derivatives of displacements in the strain vector are replaced with finite-difference relations after the middle surface of a shell gets covered with a grid (grid lines coincide with the coordinate lines of principal curvatures). By this case the total potential energy functional becomes a function of strain nodal displacements. Partial derivatives of unknown nodal displacements are equated to zero in order to minimize the total potential energy. As an example a parabolic-sinusoidal shell with a stiffened hole is analyzed. It is shown that ribs have generally beneficial effect to the zone of the opening: cause a reduction in a modulus of a stress, but an eccentricity affects differently, so material properties and design solutions should be taken into account in an analysis.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.25-34

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Pages 35-43

The method of formulating non-linear physical equations for multiphase rods is suggested in the article. Composite multiphase rods possess various structures, include shear, polar, radial and axial inhomogeneity. The Timoshenko’s hypothesis with the large rotation angles is used. The method is based on the approximation of longitudinal normal stress low by basic functions expansions regarding the linear viscosity low. The shear stresses are calculated with the equilibrium equation using the subsidiary function of the longitudinal shift force. The system of differential equations connecting the internal forces and temperature with abstract deformations are offered by the basic functions. The application of power functions with arbitrary index allows presenting the compact form equations. The functional coefficients in this system are the highest order rigidity characteristics. The whole multiphase cross-section rigidity characteristics are offered the sums of the rigidity characteristics of the same phases individually. The obtained system allows formulating the well-known particular cases. Among them: hard plasticity and linear elastic deformation, different module deformation and quadratic Gerstner’s low elastic deformation. The reform of differential equations system to the quasilinear is suggested. This system contains the secant variable rigidity characteristics depending on abstract deformations. This system includes the sum of the same uniform blocks of different order. The rods phases defined the various set of uniform blocks phase materials. The integration of dynamic, kinematic and physical equations taking into account initial and edge condition defines the full dynamical multiphase rods problem. The quasilinear physical equations allow getting the variable flexibility matrix of multiphase rod and rods system.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.35-43

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Pages 44-50

The article describes the experimental methods of determining stress-strain state of elements and structures with a brief description of the essence of each method. The authors focus mostly on polarization-optical method for determining stresses in the translucent optical sensing models made of epoxy resins. Physical component of the method is described in the article and a simple diagram of a circular polariscope is presented, as well as an example of the resulting interference pattern in illuminated monochromatic light. A polariscope, in its most general definition, consists of two polarizers. The polarizers sandwich a material or object of interest, and allows one to view the changes of the polarity of light passing through the material or object. Since we are unable to perceive the polarity of light with the naked eye, we are forced to use polariscopes to view the changes in polarity caused by the temporary birefringence of our photoelastic materials. A polariscope is constructed of two polarizers, each set perpendicular to the path of light transmitted through the setup. The first polarizer is called the "polarizer", and the second polarizer is called the "analyzer". The method how the polarizer works is quite simple: unpolarized light enters the polariscope through the polarizer, which allows through only the light of its orientation. This light then passes through the material under observation, and experiences some change in polarity. Finally, this light reaches the analyzer, which, like the polarizer, only lets the light of its orientation through.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.44-50

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Pages 51-56

From the viewpoint of mechanics the box span of trestle bridges is non-diaphragm prismatic shell of multiple cross section of average length. Though many problems of static analysis of such structures have been solved, the development of analytical methods of calculating non-diaphragm box type structures on the vibration is an urgent task. The presented method for analysis of free vibration of non-diaphragm spans of box trestle bridges of multiple cross sections is based on the variation theory of prismatic shells of average length by V.Z. Vlasov. In this method the discrete-continuum design scheme, in which the mass of the structure is reduced to its nodal lines, is used. Equations of free vibration are variation equations and represent the work of internal and external forces in the possible displacements. The possible displacements are determined by the static approximation. The order frequency equation, obtained by solving the equation system of free vibration, coincides with the number of the vertical walls of the box span. For a split design scheme span the frequency equation is algebraic, and its components are calculated in analytical formulas. The method is illustrated by free vibrations of non-diaphragm box spans with four cross sections. As a result, the solution frequency spectrum and modes of vibration were defined. The advantage of the presented method of calculation is that the components of the frequency equation are calculated in analytical formulas. This method helps to study free vibration non-diaphragm box spans of multiple cross sections depending on changes in the design parameters. Application of this method will reduce the time and improve the design quality, and also monitor the results of structures analysis prepared with the help of computer complex.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.51-56

- Luzhin O.V. Teoriya tonkostennykh sterzhney zamknutogo profilya i ee primenenie v mostostroenii [Theory of Thin-Walled Bars of Closed Section and its Application in Bridge Engineering]. Moscow, VIA Publ., 1959, 303 p.
- Vlasov V.Z. Tonkostennye uprugie sterzhni [Thin-Walled Elastic Bars]. Moscow, Fizmatiz Publ., 1959, 566 p.
- Il'yasevich S.A. Metallicheskie korobchatye mosty [Metal Box-Shaped Bridges]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1970, 280 p.
- Gibshman M.E. Problemy proektirovaniya transportnykh sooruzheniy v gorodakh i na avtomobil'nykh dorogakh [Design Problems of Transport Structures in the Cities and on Motor Roads]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura [News of the Institutions of Higher Education. Construction and Architecture]. 1978, no. 6, pp. 138—147.
- Vlasov V.Z. Tonkostennye prostranstvennye sistemy [Thin-walled Spatial Systems]. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1958, 502 p.
- Mileykovskiy I.E. Raschet obolochek i skladok metodom peremeshcheniy [Displacement Method of Shells and Folded Plate Analysis]. Moscow, Gosstroiizdat Publ., 1960, 298 p.
- Aleksandrov A.V. Raschet korobchatykh balochnykh proletnykh stroeniy po metodu peremeshcheny [Displacement Method of Box Type Beam Span Analysis]. Issledovaniya po teorii sooruzheniy [Theory of Structures Research]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ.,1965, no. 14, pp. 209—213.
- Kissing W. Zur Behandlung dunnwandig geschlossener Konstruktionen mit einer verallgemeinerten halbmomentenfreien Schalentheorit nach Wlassow. Technische Mechanik, Magdeburg, 1982, H. 1, Nr. 3, S. 67—70.
- Kissing W., Franzke H. Untersuchung zweizelliger dunnwandiger Kastentrager unter thermischer Belastung mit einem erweiterten halbmomentenfreien Schalenmodell. Schiffbauforschung, Rostock, 1983, Nr. 22, S. 10—15.
- Kissing W., Kaftan U. Anwendungndes halbmomentenfreien Schalenmodells auf temperaturfeldbelastete konische Kastentrager. Schiffbauforschung, Rostock, 1984, Nr. 23, S. 22—27.
- Altenbach I., Kissing W. Numerische Berechnung konischer dunnwandig geschlossener Konstruktionen. Schiffbauforschung, Rostock, 1985, Nr. 24, S. 33—35.
- Altenbach I., Kissing W. Statische und dynamische Analyse fur prismatitsche und nichtprismatische Kastentrager. Technische Mechanik, Magdeburg, 1986, H. 1, Nr. 7, S. 37—41.
- Sokolov O.L. Statika bezdiafragmennykh korobchatykh proletnykh stroeny mnogokontyrnogo secheniya [Statics of Non-Diaphragm Box Type Spans of Multi-Contour Section]. Vologda, VSTU Publ., 2013, 134 p.
- Sokolov O.L., Il’ichev E.A. Svobodnye kolebaniya korobchatykh proletnykh stroeny shirokih mostov-estakad mnogokontyrnogo secheniya [Free Vibrations of Box Type Spans of Broad Trestle Bridges of Multiple cross sectionsss]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitelstvo [Industrial and Сivil Уngineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 50—51.
- Ignatiev V.A., Sokolov O.L. Thin-Walled Cellular Structures (Methods for Their Analysis). New Delhi/Calcutta, Oxford & IBI Publ. Co. PVT. LTD., 1999, 214 p.

Pages 57-62

Modeling singular solutions of the elasticity theory problems, which are determined by geometric factor - bird's mouth of the edge, make it necessary to analyze the solutions with some peculiarity, which are obtained experimentally with the help of photoelasticity method. In this article the peculiar stress-strain state is analyzed on the example of the known experimental solutions for a wedge under a concentrated force obtained by M. Frocht. Solution analysis for a wedge with a power-type peculiarity obtained experimentally by photoelasticity method, helps to detach a singular solution field, where fringe contour is not visible. Due to idealization of the boundary shape and loading technique, infinitely large stresses arise, which are obtained as a singular solution of the boundary problem in a planar domain. Comparison of theoretical and experimental solutions obtained for a wedge shows areas of overlap and areas of significant and insignificant differences as a result of the inability to experimentally apply the force to a single point.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.57-62

- Kondrat'ev V.A. Asimptotika resheniya uravneniya Nov'e — Stoksa v okrestnosti uglovoy tochki granitsy [Asymptotics of Navier — Stokes Equations Solutions in the Area of Angular Edge Point]. Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika [Applied Mathematics and Mechanics]. 1967, no. 1, pp. 119—123.
- Kuliev V.D. Singulyarnye kraevye zadachi [Singular Boundary Problems]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2005, 719 p.
- Parton V.Z., Perlin P.I. Metody matematicheskoy uprugosti [Methods of Mathematical Elasticity]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1981, pp. 305—325.
- Timoshenko S.P., Gud'er Dzh. Teoriya uprugosti [Elasticity Theory]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1975, 576 p.
- Aksentyan O.K. Osobennosti napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya plity v okrestnosti rebra [Peculiarities of Stress-Strain State of a Slab near Arris]. Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika [Applied Mathematics and Mechanics]. 1967, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 178—186.
- Vardanyan G.S., Savost'yanov V.N., Mozgaleva M.L., Frishter L.Yu. O sobstvennykh znacheniyakh v reshenii zadach dlya oblastey, soderzhashchikh neregulyarnye tochki [On Characteristic Values in Problems Solution for the Areas Containing Irregular Points]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2003, no. 3, pp. 28—31.
- Williams M.L. Stress Singularities Resulting from Various Boundary Conditions in Angular Corners of Plates in Extension. J. Appl. Mech. 1952, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 526.
- Williams M.L. The Complex Variable Approach to Stress Singularities. J. Appl. Mech. 1956, vol. 23, no. 3, p. 477.
- Frocht M.M. Photoelasticity. J. Wiley and Sons, London, 1965.
- Khesin G.L. Metod fotouprugosti [Photoelasticity Method]. In 3 volumes. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1975, vol. 3, pp. 311.
- Frishter L.Yu. O vozmozhnostyakh polucheniya metodom fotouprugosti napryazhennogo sostoyaniya v oblasti kontsentratsii napryazheniy [On the Possibilities to Obtain Stress State in the Area of Stress Concentration by the Photoelasticity Method]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 1, pp. 165—168.
- Krasnov L.A. Tsvetnost' izokhrom v fotouprugosti. Eksperimental'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Isochrome Firmness in Photoelasticity]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2004, pp. 49—62.

Pages 63-69

In the article the problem of calculation of the multistoried building on soil with nonlinear properties is considered. As a foundation model the Mor-Coulomb model is applied. This model meets the following main requirements: it is capable to represent the mechanism of deformation of soil realistically; it contains parameters, which can be defined from standard laboratory researches; it has a sinmilarity and simplicity of use from the computing point of view. In the article the influence of fluidifying foundation soil at intensive seismic effect is investigated. In case of strong influences the behavior of soil becomes nonlinear, and the problem of assessing the response of soil becomes significantly complicated: the response depends as on the structure, power and water saturation of soil layers, and on magnitude and frequency structure of seismic influence. At such influences the rheological properties of soil, which is often connected with ground water movements, change. The changes of a phase condition of soil when soil is diluted are possible. As a result, seismic fluidifying of soil is usually accompanied by severe accidents even on aseismic constructions: buildings manage "to drown" or warp. There are even emissions of the diluted soil on a surface, which lead to formation of sandy craters. The catastrophic fluidifying of the water-saturated dusty and sand soil, which has caused victims and huge economic damage, happened at two strong earthquakes of 1964: on March 27 at a coast of Alaska near Anchorage with M = 8,4, and on June 16 in Niigata (Japan) with M = 7,5. Researches are conducted with the use of direct dynamic methods of calculation realizing obvious schemes of integration of the equations of movement.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.63-69

- Mkrtychev O.V., Dzhinchvelashvili G.A. Raschet zhelezobetonnogo monolitnogo zdaniya na zemletryasenie v nelineynoy postanovke [Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Monolithic Building on Earthquake in Nonlinear Formulation]. Sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-metodicheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya V.N. Baykova. Moskva, 4-5 aprelya 2012 g. [Collected Reports of the International Scientific Conference Dedicated to the 100th Anniversary of V.N. Baykov. Moscow, 4-5 April 2012]. Moscow, 2012, pp. 283—289.
- Mkrtychev O.V., Dzhinchvelashvili G.A. Otsenka nelineynoy raboty zdaniy i sooruzheniy pri avariynykh vozdeystviyakh [Evaluation of Nonlinear Operation of Buildings and Structures at Emergency Exposures]. Problemy bezopasnosti rossiyskogo obshchestva [Security Problems of the Russian Society]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 17—31.
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- Voznesenskiy E.A., Kushnareva E.S. Seysmicheskaya razzhizhaemost' gruntov. Inzhenernaya otsenka i klassifitsirovanie [Seismic Soil Liquefaction. Engineering Estimation and Classification]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 11—23.
- Tyapin A.G. Primer seysmicheskogo rascheta sistemy «sooruzhenie — osnovanie» dlya dvukhopornogo sooruzheniya [Example of Seismic Calculation of a System “Structure — Foundation” for Two-support Structure]. Seysmostoykoe stroitel'stvo. Bezopasnost' sooruzheniy [Antiseismic Construction. Safety of Structures]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 16—25.
- Strokova L.A. Opredelenie parametrov dlya chislennogo modelirovaniya povedeniya gruntov [Determination of the parameters for numerical simulation of soil behavior]. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University]. 2008, no. 1, vol. 313, pp. 69—74.
- Pavlenko O.V. Uprugaya nelineynost' osadochnykh porod [Elastic Nonlinearity of Sedimentary Rocks]. Doklady akademii nauk [Reports of the Academy of Sciences]. 2003, vol. 389, no. 2, pp. 247—251.
- Pavlenko O.V. O nelineyno-uprugom povedenii gruntov pri sil'nykh zemletryaseniyakh [On Nonlinear-elastic Behavior of Soil at Intensive Earthquakes]. Nauka i tekhnologiya v Rossii [Science and Technology in Russia]. 2002, no. 7(58), 2003, no. 1(59), pp. 9—13.
- Konstantinova T.G. Razzhizhenie gruntov pri sil'nykh zemletryaseniyakh [Fluidifying of Soil at Strong Earthquakes]. Innovatsii v nauke: materialy XVIII Mezhdunarodnoy zaochnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Innovations in Science: Materials of the 18th International Virtual Scientific and Practical Conference]. Novosibirsk, Sibak Publ., 2013. Available at: http://sibac.info/index.php/2009-07-01-10-21-16/7625-2013-04-30-09-06-50.
- Khavroshkin O.B., Tsyplakov V.V. Nelineynaya seysmologiya: nekotorye fundamental'nye i prikladnye problemy razvitiya [Nonlinear Seismology: Some Fundamental and Applied Problems of Development]. Fundamental'nye nauki — narodnomu khozyaystvu [Fundamental Sciences to National Economy]. Moscow, 1990, pp. 363—367.
- Basu U., Chopra A.K. Perfectly Matched Layers for Transient Elastodynamics of Unbounded Domains. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. 2004, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1039—1074. DOI: 10.1002/nme.896.
- Basu U. Explicit Finite Element Perfectly Matched Layer for Transient Three-dimensional Elastic Waves. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. 2009, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 151—176. DOI: 10.1002/nme.2397.
- Herrera I., Bielak J. Soil-structure Interaction as a Diffraction Problem. Proceedings of the 6th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. New Delhi, India, 1977, vol. 2, pp. 1467—1472.
- Bielak J., Loukakis K., Hisada Y., Yoshimura C. Domain Reduction Method for Threedimensional Earthquake Modeling in Localized Regions, Part I: Theory. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 2003, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 817—824. DOI: 10.1785/0120010251.
- Yoshimura C., Bielak J., Hisada Y., Fernandez A. Domain Reduction Method for Three-dimensional Earthquake Modeling in Localized Regions, Part II: Verification and Applications. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 2003, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 825—841. DOI: 10.1785/0120010252.

Pages 70-77

Heat-protective qualities of building structures are determined by the qualities of the used materials, adequate design solutions and construction and installation work of high quality. This rule refers both to the structures made of materials similar in their structure and nature and mixed, combined by a construction system. The necessity to ecaluate thermal conductivity is important for a product and for a construction. Methods for evaluating the thermal protection of walls are based on the methods of calculation, on full-scale tests in a laboratory or on objects. At the same time there is a reason to believe that even deep and detailed calculation may cause deviation of the values from real data. Using finite difference method can improve accuracy of the results, but it doesn’t solve all problems. The article discusses new approaches to evaluating thermal insulation properties of walls. The authors propose technique of accurate measurement of thermal insulation properties in single blocks and fragments of walls and structures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.70-77

- Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Fasadnaya sistema s ispol’zovaniem materialov yacheistoy struktury [Facade System Made of Porous Materials]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 128—132.
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Pages 78-90

Currently, the waste industry is being perceived more as a raw material for producing the desired products. That is the result of waste production expanding and the improvement of processing of materials technology. Most part of waste recycling falls on construction technology. If waste recycling is used in building constructions there may be possible negative effects of heavy metals emission. Large waste volumes make it possible to develop heterogeneous waste recycling effects such as mutual neutralization of synergy and the improvement of consumer qualities of the obtained materials. Basing on summarized results of waste heterogeneous co-recycling research it was possible to find ways of construction materials potential preparation. Methodological principles are based on best available technologies principles. The presented paper sets targets, methods and tools to achieve them. The qualitative and quantitative characteristics may vary depending on the tasks to be implemented. It was stated that the effective counteraction of wastes reduced the emission of heavy metals on the account of mutual neutralization and the shift of water-soluble composition to fix form. The obtained material in relation to its consumer properties is as good as its raw material analogy.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.78-90

- Leont'ev L.I. Net dal'neyshemu nakopleniyu tekhnogennykh otkhodov metallurgii [Say No to Further Accumulation of Ferrous Waste]. Ekologiya i promyshlennost' Rossii [Ecology and Production Sector of Russia]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 2—3.
- Reich J., Pasel C., Herbell J., Luckas M. Effects of Limestone Addition and Sintering on Heavy Metal Leaching from Hazardous Waste Incineration Slag. Waste Management. 2002, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 315—326. DOI: 10.1016/S0956-053X(01)00020-4.
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Pages 91-99

The samples of fiber reinforced concrete with different fiber concentration, types of fiber, class of concrete were tested. The values of the critical stress intensity factors were determined as well as the strength characteristics of fiber-reinforced concrete of various compositions. Tests were carried out by bending the beams of 400x100x100 mm with a cut. Critical stress intensity factor was determined with the help of the value of the breaking load. The regularities of the influence of the type and concentration of fibers on the strength characteristics of the fiber reinforced concrete were stated. The authors identified key properties of steely and polypropylene fibers and offered their comparison. From these experiments we obtained data for further use in theoretical studies of fiber reinforced concretes structures. This research revealed common patterns of change in the properties of fiber reinforced concrete, depending on the composition. The advantages of different types of fibers were discussed. Valid formula for determining the critical stress intensity factor was found. Adding fiber in different concentrations to the concrete mix increase the tensile strength 3.5-4.5 times for steel fibers and 2-2.5 times for polypropylene fibers. Polypropylene fiber addition leads to decrease in compressive strength of the concrete of up to 8 %, the steel fibers addition, on the contrary, to increase in the compressive strength of concrete up to 20 %. Increase in tensile strength is observed mostly for low-strength concrete. In order to ensure uniform distribution of fibers in the volume of concrete specific methods should be applied.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.91-99

- Antropova E.A., Drobyshev B.A., Amosov P.V. Svoystva modifitsirovannogo stalefibrobetona [Properties of the Modified Steel Fiber Concrete]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 2002, no. 3, pp. 3—6.
- Bocharnikov A.S., Korneev A.D. Tekhnologicheskie faktory, vliyayushchie na mikro- i makrostrukturu peskobetonnoy matritsy i prochnostnye svoystva stalefibrobetona [Technological Factors Affecting Micro-and Macrostructure of Sand Concrete Matrix and Mechanical Properties of Steel Fiber Concrete]. Tekhnologii betonov [Concrete Technologies]. 2005, no. 3, pp. 62—63.
- Braune Ya.A., Kravinskis V.K., Spilva M.O. Opredelenie uprugikh kharakteristik deformiruemosti dispersno-armirovannogo betona [Determination of Elastic Characteristics of Fiber Concrete Deformability]. Proektirovanie i optimizatsiya konstruktsiy inzhenernykh sooruzheniy [Design and Optimization of Engineering Structures]. Riga, RPI Publ., 1986, pp. 87—97.
- Braune Ya.A., Kravinskis V.K., Filipsons V.O. Statisticheskiy analiz raspredeleniya armatury i prochnost' stalefibrobetona [Statistical Analysis of the Distribution of Reinforcement and Strength of Steel Fiber Concrete]. Proektirovanie i optimizatsiya konstruktsiy inzhenernykh sooruzheniy [Design and Optimization of Engineering Structures]. Riga, RPI Publ., 1982, pp. 89—95.
- Volkov I.V. Fibrobeton sostoyanie i perspektivy primeneniya v stroitel'nykh konstruktsiyakh [Fiber Concrete Condition and Prospects of Application in Building Structures]. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st Century]. 2004, no. 5, pp. 24—25.
- Kosarev V.M. Raschet prochnosti po normal'nym secheniyam izgibaemykh elementov s khaotichnym diskretnym armirovaniem [Strength Calculation for Normal Sections of Bent Elements with Chaotic Discrete Reinforcement]. Fibrobeton i ego primenenie v stroitel'stve [Fibrous Concrete and its Application in Construction]. Moscow, NIIZhB Publ., 1979, pp. 20—26.
- Kurbatov L.G., Popov V.I. Treshchinostoykost' i raskrytie treshchin v izgibaemykh stalefibrobetonnykh elementakh [Crack Resistance and Crack Opening in Bent Steel Fiber Concrete Elements]. Prostranstvennye konstruktsii v grazhdanskom stroitel'stve [Spatial Design in Civil Engineering]. Leningrad, LenZNIIEP Publ., 1982, pp. 33—42.
- Rusanov V.E. Opredelenie prochnostnykh i deformativnykh svoystv stalefibrobetona dlya rascheta tonnel'nykh obdelok [Determination of Strength and Deformation Properties of Steel Fiber Concrete for Tunnel Lining Calculation]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 189—197.
- Rusanov V.E. K otsenke effektivnosti primeneniya fibrobetona v sbornykh tonnel'nykh obdelkakh [Evaluating the Effectiveness of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Application in Precast Tunnel Lining]. Transportnoe stroitel'stvo [Transport Construction]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 13—16.
- Kagan M. Sravnenie fakticheskoy prochnosti na szhatie blokov iz betona i stalefibrobetona [Comparison of the Actual Compressive Strength of Concrete and Steel Fiber Concrete Blocks]. Metrostroy [Constructing Metro]. 1987, no. 3, pp. 19—22.
- Rizkalla Sami, Hassan Tarek. Effectiveness of FRP for Strengthening Concrete Bridges. Structural Engineering International. 2002, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 89—95. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2749/101686602777965577.
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- Vandewalle L., etc. Recommendations of RILEM TC 162-TDF: Test and Design Methods for Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete — Sigma-epsilon design method. Materials and Structures. 2000, vol. 33, pp. 75—81.

Pages 100-107

Constructive, technical and technological reliability of major pipeline ensures ecological safety on different stages of life circle - beginning with project preparation activities up to the end of major pipeline operation. Even in the process of transition into new life circle stage, no matter if the pipeline needs major repairs or reconstruction, such technical and technological solutions should be found, which would preserve ecological stability of nature-anthropogenic system. Development of ecology protection technologies of construction, reconstruction and major repairs of main pipelines is of great importance not only for a region, but ensures ecological safety across the globe. The article presents a new way of trenching the main oil and gas pipeline, preservation and increase of ecological safety during its service. The updated technological plan is given in the paper for overhaul of the main oil and gas pipeline using the new technology of pipeline trenching. The suggested technical solution contributes to environment preservation with the help of deteriorating shells - the shells’ material decomposes into environment-friendly components: carbon dioxide, water and humus. The quantity of polluting agents in the atmosphere decreases with the decrease of construction term and quantity of technical equipment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.100-107

- Goodland Robert, editor. Oil and Gas. Pipelines Social and Environmental Impact Assessment: State of the Art. Available at: http://coecoceiba.org/wp-content/subidas/2009/11/pub76.pdf. Date of access: 17.03.2014.
- Hopkins Phil. Comprehensive Structural Integrity. Vol. 1. The Structural Integrity of Oil And Gas Transmission Pipelines. Penspen Ltd., UK, May 2002. Available at: http://www.penspen.com/downloads/papers/documents/thestructuralintegrityofoilandgastransmissionpipelines.pdf. Date of access: 24.02.2014.
- Khaustov A.P., Redina M.M. Virtual'nyy trenazhernyy kompleks po ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti truboprovodnogo transporta uglevodorodov [Virtual Simulator Complex on Ecological Safety of Pipeline Transport of Hydrocarbons]. Truboprovodnyy transport [ Pipeline Transport]. 2011, no. 1 (23), pp. 9—11.
- Kozlitin P.A., Kozlitin A.M. Teoreticheskie osnovy i metody sistemnogo analiza promyshlennoy bezopasnosti ob"ektov teploenergetiki s uchetom riska: monografiya [Theoretical Basis and Methods of the System Analysis of Industrial Safety of Thermal Engineering Objects with Account for Risks: Monograph]. Saratov, Saratovskiy gosudarstvennyy tekhnicheskiy universitet Publ., 2009, 156 p.
- Kozlitin A.M. Teoriya i metody analiza riska slozhnykh tekhnicheskikh sistem: monografiya [Risk Theory and Analysis Methods of the Complex Technical Systems: Monograph]. Saratov, Saratovskiy gosudarstvennyy tekhnicheskiy universitet Publ., 2009, 200 p.
- Salah Ahmad M., Atwood Denis. ONE Route Good Enough? Using ArcGIS Network Analyst in Pipeline Alignment Optimization. ArcUser. 2010. Available at: http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/0410/pipeline.html. Date of access: 24.02.2014.
- Defina John, Maitin Izak, Gray Arnold L. New Jersey Uses GIS To Collect Site Remediation Data. April-June 1998. ArcUser. Available at: http://www.esri.com/news/arcuser/arcuser4.98/newjersey.html. Date of access: 24.02.2014.
- Xiong Jian, Su Lanqian, Zhang Zhenyong. The Estimation of Pipeline Routes Workload Base on GIS Technology. Available at: http: //www.igu.org/html/wgc2009. Date of access: 24.02.2014.
- Korsey S.G., D'yakova N.B. Transportirovka i khranenie GIS-tekhnologii v truboprovodnom transporte [Transporting and Storage of GIS-technologies in Pipeline Transport]. NEFTEGAZ.RU. 2006. Available at: http://neftegaz.ru/science/view/208. Date of access: 24.03.2014.
- Abramyan S.G. Kontseptsiya sozdaniya GIS-tekhnologii dlya ekologicheskogo monitoringa lineynykh ob"ektnykh remontno-stroitel'nykh potokov [Concept of GIS Technologies Creapion for Ecological Monitoring of Linear Object Repair and Construction Flows]. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Stroitel’naya Informatika [Internet Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Construction Informatics Series]. 2010, no. 4 (11). Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/?source=4&articleno=396. Date of access: 12.03.2014.
- Potapov A.D., Abramyan S.G. Ekologicheskaya pasportizatsiya lineynykh ob"ektnykh remontno-stroitel'nykh potokov s primeneniem geograficheskikh informatsionnykh sistemnykh tekhnologiy [Ecological Passportization of Linear Object Repair and Construction Flows Using Geographical Informational System Technologies]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 193—197.
- Abramyan S.G., Akhmedov A.M. Tekhnologicheskaya skhema zameny izolyatsii pri rekonstruktsii i kapital'nom remonte magistral'nykh truboprovodov s primeneniem GIStekhnologiy [Technological Scheme of Insulation Change in the Process of Reconstruction and Major Repairs of Main Pipelines Using GIS Technologies]. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Stroitel’stvo I Architektura [Internet Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Construction and Architecture Series]. 2013, no. 30 (49), pp. 342—345.
- Veliyulin I.I. Sovershenstvovanie metodov remonta gazoprovodov [Improvement of the Repair Methods for Gas Pipelines]. Moscow, Neft' i gaz Publ., 1997, 153 p.
- Dedeshko V.N., Salyukov V.V., Mitrokhin M.Yu. Tekhnologii pereizolyatsii i novye izolyatsionnye pokrytiya dlya zashchity MG [Insulation Change Technologies and New Insulation Coatings for Main Pipelines Protection]. Gazovaya promyshlennost' [Gas Industry]. 2005, no. 2, pp. 68—71.
- Shatskiy A.S., Lutsyk A.F., Larin S.S., Gabelaya R.D., Ivakin A.V. Sposob zaglubleniya truboprovodov [Means of Pipeline Ruggedization]. Patent 2370696, Rosiyskaya Federatsiya. № 2006141325/06; zayavl. 23.11.2006; opubl. 10.12.2007, Byul. № 34 [Russian Patent 2370696, no. 2006141325/06; subm. 23.11.2006; published 10.12.2007, Bulletin no. 34]. 12 p.

Pages 108-118

The objective of street canyon ventilation control in major streets is a tool of air pollution prevention in them, protection of housing areas from excessive wind or preservation and intensification of existing wind speed in case of insufficient ventilation. The maximum permissible concentration of car exhaust pollutants with wind speed within comfortable and permissible values by physiological and hygienic criteria, are ensured as from 40 to 70 % of thoroughfares in major cities. The dependence of air pollution level on wind speed is comparable to its dependence on traffic intensity and ratio of buildings height (H) to street width. But one has to take into account that, if the wind blows across the street, vortices form within the street canyon, which results in higher concentration of car exhaust pollutants near the downwind buildings. The objective of this work is to find the functional dependences of wind speed in a major street on its width and density of buildings, and also to find out which street configurations are favorable for formation of closed air circulation within it, resulting in insufficient aeration. The experimental research was done on a site for large-scale modeling of built-up urban territory, using cup anemometers. The coefficients of dependence of wind speed within a street on the types of buildings and on the street width were obtained. Characteristics of street layouts for control of aeration were determined. Building density rates for maximizing or optimizing the wind speed were determined. Street layouts are considered where stable vortices form between the buildings. For example, vortices within the street canyon’s cross-section appear when buildings squarish in ground plan situated far apart are replaced by oblong ones with the minimum allowed intervals of 15 meters between them (for 5-storeyed buildings; or intervals equal to the buildings’ height), or where the buildings are long and close together. With separate buildings of reasonable length and sufficient intervals between them, and with street width over 9 H… 10 H , the buildings’ influence on wind speed lessens, and the vortices do not form between buildings. Thus the danger of excess air pollution within street canyon is eliminated. On the other hand, the air flow over the trafficway slows down more at the intervals between the buildings than at their mid-lengths, and this effect is more prominent when the buildings are narrow in the direction along the street (like 10…25 meters). This could be explained by forming, and gradual increasing in number, of small chaotic vortices with conflicting directions, even counter-directional, at the corners of buildings as the intervals between buildings increase in number. In real life, in order to protect the streets from strong winds, it is advisable to use certain planning methods, like alternate side-shifting or rotating the buildings in the row, additional space between them and the trafficway, alternating buildings of different height, and other non-linear plan and height configurations. At the same time, they should ensure lesser concentrations of toxic air pollutants within the streets, and the intervals between the buildings should be at least corresponding to the sunlight norms and fire regulations.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.108-118

- Serebrovskiy F.L. Aeratsiya naselennykh mest [Aeration of Populated Sites]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1985, 170 p.
- Retter E.I. Arkhitekturno-stroitelnaya aerodinamika [Architectural Aerodynamics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1984, 294 p.
- Dmitriyev M.T., Kitrosskiy N.A., Al'perin V.Z. Zavisimost' toksikatsii vozdukha avtomagistraley gorodov ot intensivnosti dvizheniya, vysoty i plotnosti zastroyki [Dependence of Toxic Air Pollution in Major Urban Streets on Traffic Intensity and Tallness and Density of Buildings]. Izvestiya vuzov [News of Higher Educational Institutions]. 1971, no. 3, pp. 120—124.
- Chan T.L., Dong G., Leung C.W., Cheung C.S., Hung W.T. Validation of a Two-Dimensional Pollutant Dispersion Model in an Isolated Street Canyon. Atmospheric Environment. 2002, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 861—872. DOI: 10.1016/S1352-2310(01)00490-3.
- Jicha Miroslav, Pospisil Jiri, Kftolicky Jaroslav. Dispersion of Pollutants in Street Canyon under Traffic Induced Flow and Turbulence. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2000, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 343—351. DOI: 10.1023/A:1006452422885.
- Addison Paul S., Currie John I., Low David J., McCann Joanna M. An Integrated Approach to Street Canyon Pollution Modelling. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2000, vol. 65, no. 1-2, pp. 333—342. DOI: 10.1007/978-94-010-0932-4_36.
- Nuterman R.B., Starchenko A.V. Modelirovanie zagryazneniya vozdukha v ulichnom kanyone [Modeling of Air Pollution within a Street Canyon]. Optika atmosfery i okeana [Atmospheric and Oceanic Optics]. 2005, no. 8, pp. 649—657.
- Uehara Kiyoshi, Murakami Shuzo, Oikawa Susumu, Wakamatsu Shinji. Wind Tunnel Experiments on How Thermal Stratification Affects Flow in and Above Urban Street Canyons. Atmospheric Environment. 2000, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 1553—1562. DOI: 10.1016/S1352-2310(99)00410-0.
- Baik Jong-Jin, Kim Jae-Jin. A Numerical Study of Flow and Pollutant Dispersion Characteristics in Urban Street Canyons. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 1999, vol. 38, no. 11, pp. 1576—1589. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<1576:ANSOFA>2.0.CO;2.
- Kim Jae-Jin, Baik Jong-Jin. A Numerical Study of Thermal Effects on Flow and Pollutant Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons. Journal of Applied Meteorology. 1999, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 1249—1261. DOI: 10.1175/1520-0450(1999)038<1249:ANSOTE>2.0.CO;2.
- Assimakopoulos V.D., ApSimon H.M., Moussiopoulos N. A Numerical Study of Atmospheric Pollutant Dispersion in Different Two-dimensional Street Canyon Configurations. Atmospheric Environment. 2003, vol. 37, no. 29, pp. 4037—4049. DOI: 10.1016/S1352-2310(03)00533-8.
- Nikitin V.S., Maksimkina N.G., Samsonov V.T., Plotnikova L.V. Provetrivanie promyshlennykh ploshchadok i prilegayushchikh k nim territoriy [Natural Aeration of Industrial Sites and Adjacent Territories]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1980, 200 p.

Pages 119-126

This article considers the main aspects of the process of self-purification in the marine environment. It describes mechanics of biogenic elements of the marine environment in the process of production and destruction of autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter. This article discusses organics and flows of energy, which migrate to the trophic chain of the marine environment in the process of self-purification. And it shows the individual elements of the process of self-purification in the marine environment and the factors influencing it. In the article it is noted that self-cleaning of water environment happens due to the cycling of matter in the pond. It is emphasized that tension, focus and self-purification completeness are regulated by biotic turnover and energy turnover, which is determined by the type of limnological type of reservoir, geographical features (climate conditions), geophysical and anthropogenic impacts. The article notes that the more diverse system of organisms is, the fuller the compounds’ decay is. This property of organisms to complement each other is called buffering of the system. Complex system of organisms cope better with organic and bacterial contamination, but is less responsive to insertion nutrients; biotic cycle in complex systems is more intense. Bacterial community plays the major role in the process of self-purification of biological marine environments. They are the major element of the coastal zone ecosystems. This article shows that during the growth of bacterial populations most of the energy supplied to the aquatic ecosystems with auto- and allochthonous organic matter is processed. The bacteria prepare the conditions for the development of other organisms of water biocenosis. Concentration of the organic substrate regulates the growth rate of bacteria. Bacterial self-cleaning depends on the total number of microorganisms or their separate groups, locally contained in the marine environment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.119-126

- Sinel'nikov V.E. Mekhanizm samoochishcheniya vodoemov [Mechanism of Basins Self Purification]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1980, 64 p.
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- Gol'dberg G.A., Zats V.I. Modelirovanie protsessov samoochishcheniya vod [Modeling the Processes of Waters Self Purification]. Sevastopol', Institut biologii yuzhnykh morey im. A.O. Kovalevskogo AN USSR Publ., 1991, 59 p.
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- Shurda K.E. O nekotorykh ekologicheskikh problemakh i napravleniyakh Chernogo morya [On Some Ecological Problems and Directions of the Black Sea]. Odesa, TsNTPIONYuA Publ., 2003, pp. 56—58.
- Chepurnova E.A., Zharov N.A. Mikrobiologicheskie pokazateli v otsenke samoochishchayushchey sposobnosti morskikh vod [Microbiological Attributes in Estimating Self-Purifying Capacity of Sea Waters]. Sevastopol', Institut biologii yuzhnykh morey im. A.O. Kovalevskogo AN USSR Publ., 1984, 6 p.
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Pages 127-134

The article is devoted to analytical study of transformation fields of axial and radial velocities in uneven steady creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid in the initial portion of the cylindrical channel. It is shown that the velocity field of the flow is two-dimensional and determined by the stream function. The article is a continuation of a series of papers, where normalized analytic functions of radial axial distributions in uneven steady creeping flow in a cylindrical tube with azimuthal vorticity and stream function were obtained. There is Poiseuille profile for the axial velocity in the uniform motion of a fluid at an infinite distance from the entrance of the pipe (at x = ∞), here taken equal to zero radial velocity. There is uniform distribution of the axial velocity in the cross section at the tube inlet at x = 0, at which the axial velocity is constant along the current radius. Due to the axial symmetry of the flow on the axis of the pipe (at r = 0), the radial velocities and the partial derivative of the axial velocity along the radius, corresponding to the condition of the soft function extremum, are equal to zero. The authors stated vanishing of the velocity of the fluid on the walls of the pipe (at r = R , where R - radius of the tube) due to its viscous sticking and tightness of the walls. The condition of conservation of volume flow along the tube was also accepted. All the solutions are obtained in the form of the Fourier - Bessel. It is shown that the hydraulic losses at uniform creeping flow of a Newtonian fluid correspond to Poiseuille - Hagen formula.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.127-134

- Orekhov G.V., Zuykov A.L., Volshanik V.V. Kontrvikhrevoe polzushchee techenie [Creeping Counter Vortex Flow]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 172—180.
- Akhmetov V.K., Volshanik V.V., Zuykov A.L., Orekhov G.V. Modelirovanie i raschet kontrvikhrevykh techeniy [Modeling and Calculation of Counter Vortex Flows]. Мoscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 252 p.
- Zuykov A.L. Azimutal'nyy vikhr' i funktsiya toka v polzushchem techenii v trube [Azimuthal Vorticity and Stream Function in the Creeping Flow in a Pipe]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 4, рp. 150—159.
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Pages 135-143

The theory of a body striking a fluid began intensively developing due to the tasks of hydroplanes landing. For the recent years the study of a stroke and submersion of bodies into fluid became even more current. We face them in the process of strength calculation of ship hulls and other structures in modern technology. These tasks solution represents great mathematical difficulty even in case of the mentioned simplifications. These difficulties emerge due to the unsteady character of fluid motion in case of body submersion, and also jet and spray phenomena, which lead to discontinuous motions. On the basis of G.V. Logvinovich’s concept the problem of loads determination with consideration for air gap is solved for both a body and reservoir enclosing structures when a body falls into a fluid. Numerical method is based on the decay of an arbitrary discontinuity.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.135-143

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Pages 144-151

In the process of hydraulic structures design, in particular berths with wave cancelling structures, which serve to decrease the wave impact on structures, there appears a problem of vertical wave hydrodynamic loads calculation on floor slabs. In the existing normative documents there are no requirements on calculating vertical wave loads on the horizontal floor slabs of open-type structures (enveloping, mooring, approach trestles, etc.) and stairs of sloping-staired open-type structures. A mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the vertical wave loads on the floor slab through moorings. The model is based on the theory of jet impact on a solid surface. The width of the wave crest, striking in the overlap of the pier, and its vertical velocity is determined by the linear wave theory. The coefficient of transmission of waves through wave quenching chambers is calculated according to the previously developed methods. Vertical wave loading is adjusted based on the ratio of the wave length and width of the overlay. Model validation is performed according to the hydraulic modelling interaction of waves with through berths in the port of Tuapse. 7 variants of their design were considered. Data mapping mathematical and hydraulic modeling showed them a close match.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.144-151

- Lappo D.D., Strekalov S.S., Zav'yalov V.K. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya vetrovykh voln na gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniya [Loadings and Impacts of Wind Waves on Hydraulic Engineering Structures]. Leningrad, VNIIG Publ., 1990, 432 p.
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Pages 152-161

In the article the problem of financing innovative activity in the construction complex is considered. The essence of leasing as one of the factors stimulating transition of the construction complex to new technological way is shown. Leasing represents a special form of financing. In the leasing transaction the owner of an asset (lessor) temporarily transfers the right to use an asset to other party (lessee). The lessor makes the lease for a specified period of time in return for a periodic rental payments from the lessee. The article shows the advantages of leasing in the construction complex and its functions. For example, one of the advantages of leasing is that it provides alternative to ownership. Also lessees benefit from a number of tax advantages. We offered a model of leasing relations in innovative development of the construction complex. In frames of this model, in our opinion, it is expedient to assign functions of management by a leasing cycle in the construction complex to engineering companies, for the purpose of increase of efficiency of its innovative activity. The functions of leasing are specified and their classification in innovative development of the construction complex is presented. We proved a leasing role in modernization of the construction complex in the conditions of transition of national economy to an innovative way of development.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.152-161

- Asaul A.N. Problemy innovatsionnogo razvitiya otechestvennoy ekonomiki. [Problems of Innovative Development in the Domestic Economy]. Ekonomicheskoe vozrozhdenie Rossii [Economic Revival of Russia]. 2009, no. 4, pр. 3—6.
- Alekseeva T.R. Osobennosti innovatsionnogo razvitiya stroitel'nogo kompleksa v usloviyakh modernizatsii natsional'noy ekonomiki [Features of Innovative Development of a Construction Complex in the Conditions of National Economy modernization]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 4, pр. 236—246.
- Alekseeva T.R. Razvitie maloy energetiki s ispol'zovaniem lizingovykh tekhnologiy [The Development of Small-scale Power Generation Using Leasing Technologies]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 156—162.
- Glaz’ev S.Yu. Mirivoy ekonomicheskiy krizis kak protsess zameshcheniya dominiruyushchikh tekhnologicheskikh ukladov [World Economic Crisis as a Process of Replacement of Dominating Technological Ways]. Available at: http://www.glazev.ru. Date of access: 10.05.2013.
- Lukmanova I.G. Metodicheskie osnovy transfera tekhnologiy v stroitel’noy otrasli [Methodological Bases for Technology in the Construction Industry]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 193—198.
- Zhuravlev M.V. «Energeticheskaya konstitutsiya», ili Ob aktual’nosti stroitel’stva miniTES [«Power Constitution», or On the Relevance of Constructing Mini-Thermal Power Station]. Seti i sistemy svyazi [Networks and Communication Systems]. 2007, no. 13, pp. 27—29.
- Filosofova T.G. Effektivnost’ ispolzovaniya lizinga v skhemakh modernizatsii [Efficiency of Leasing in Modernization Schemes]. Lizing. Tekhnologii biznesa [Leasing. Technologies of Business]. 2011, no. 9, pp. 6—21.
- Syrtsova O.N. Lizing kak instrument modernizatsii ekonomiki Rossii [Leasing as a tool for modernization of Russian economy]. Lizing. Tekhnologii biznesa [Leasing. Technologies of Business]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 14—29.
- Ibraeva A.A. Sushchnost' i funktsii lizinga v sisteme ekonomicheskikh otnosheniy khozyaystvuyushchikh sub"ektov [Leasing Essence and Functions in the system of Economic Relations of Economic Entities]. Problemy sovremennoy ekonomiki [Problems of Contemporary Economy]. 2010, no. 4 (36), pp. 196—199.
- Yas'kova N.Yu. Innovatsionnye metamorfozy investitsionnykh tsiklov [Innovative Metamorphoses of Investment Cycles]. Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Construction Economy]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 49—59.
- Yas'kova N.Yu., Kameneckii M.I. Krizis otechestvennoy modeli upravleniya stroitel'stvom i rynkom nedvizhimosti [Crisis of Domestic Model of Management by Construction and Real Estate Market]. Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Construction Economy]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 3—13.
- Miceli T.J., Sirmans C.F., Turnbull G.K. The Property-contract Boundary: an Economic Analysis of Leases. American Law and Economics Review. Oxford University Press, 2001, no. 3 (1), pp. 165—185. DOI: 10.1093/aler/3.1.165.
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- Adams A.T., Booth P.M., MacGregor B.D. Lease Terms, Option Pricing and the Financial Characteristics of Property. British Actuarial Journal. 2003, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 619—635.

Pages 162-169

The method of expert evaluation is used in the cases when there is lack of efficient formalized methods for choosing necessary measures for solving production or scientific problems. In construction industry the field of application of expert evaluation method is quite wide. In the article the method of expert evaluation is described, the data on the peculiarities of producing three-dimensional utility blocks on hypso-cement-trass concretes on the Khoroshevsky Concrete Products Plant DSK-1 is presented. The authors present pall results and expert evaluations on ten-point scale. Expert opinions were processed using mathematical statistics method. The results of statistical indicators calculation is presented and optimal ways of raising the production efficiency for three-dimensional utility blocks are chosen basing on them.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.162-169

- Efimenko A.Z. Upravlenie predpriyatiyami stroyindustrii na osnove informatsionnykh tekhnologiy: monografiya [Management of Construction Industru Enterprises Basing on Information Technologies. Monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 304 p.
- Kramerov D.V., Efimenko A.Z. Izuchenie proizvodstva neavtoklavnogo gazo-betona na osnove ekspertnykh otsenok [Investigation of Non-autoclaved Aerated Concrete Production Basing on Expert Opinion]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, Special issue, no. 1, pp. 352—356.
- Ferronskaya A.V. Gipsovye materialy i izdeliya. Proizvodstvo i primenenie: Spravochnik [Gypsum Materials and Products. Production and Application: Reference Book]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 488 p.

Pages 170-175

For effective management of investment and construction activity (ICA) there must be a subsystem responsible for information interaction. The article considers the role of information in ICA, as well as the requirements and objectives of the information systems. Data collection, communication and processing, according to the authors, reflect the system running efficiency. Thanks to information security subsystem there is a possibility of measuring the efficiency of resource use and the relations between inputs and outputs of individual elements throughout investment and construction activities. Requirements of modern economic realities, particularly, investment and construction activities dynamics, should be adjusted to the flow of information: creating new connections, terminating the others. Developing the information management system, its structure and composition require consideration and planning. Development planning and management is closely related to the improvement of information links and upgrading the entire system of information security, its structure and functioning.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.170-175

- Manakov L.F., Faltinskiy R.A. Krizis v investitsionno-stroitel'noy sfere: istoki, ugrozy, novye vozmozhnosti [The Crisis in the Construction Industry Investment: Origins, Threats, New Opportunities]. Ekonomicheskoe vozrozhdenie Rossii [Economic Renovation of Russia]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 19—24.
- Volkov A.A., Losev Yu.G., Losev K.Yu. Informatsionnaya podderzhka zhiznennogo tsikla ob"ektov stroitel'stva [Information Support of Construction Project Lifecycle]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 11, pp. 253—258.
- Sborshchikov S.B. Organizatsionnye osnovy ustoychivogo razvitiya energeticheskogo stroitel'stva [Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development of Energy Sector Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, vol. 2, pp. 363—368.
- Volkov A.A., Anikin D.V., Kulikova E.N. Model' interoperabel'nosti korporativnogo informatsionnogo prostranstva stroitel'nykh organizatsiy [Interoperability Model for Corporate Information Space of Construction Companies]. International Journal for Computational Civil and Structural Engineering. 2012, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 117—121.
- Zharov Ya.V. Organizatsionno-tekhnologicheskoe proektirovanie pri realizatsii investitsionno-stroitel'nykh proektov [Process Organization Design within the Framework of Construction Projects]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 5, pp. 176—184.
- Sborshchikov S.B., Lazareva N.V. Logisticheskoe opisanie sistemy upravleniya investitsionno-stroitel'noy deyatel'nost'yu [Logistic Description of Investment and Construction Management]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 1, pp. 196—201.
- Markasov S.V., Mkrtchyan K.M. Infokommunikatsii i effektivnost' ikh ispol'zovaniya [Infocommunications and Their Effective Use]. Ekonomicheskoe vozrozhdenie Rossii [Economic Renovation of Russia]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 24—29.
- Zhavoronkov E.P. Resursnyy faktor i logistika v stroitel'stve [Resource Factor and Logistics in Construction]. Ekonomicheskoe vozrozhdenie Rossii [Economic Renovation of Russia]. 2006, no. 1, pp. 7—13.
- Kostyuchenko V.V., Kudinov D.O. Informatsionnoe obespechenie upravleniya stroitel'nymi sistemami [Data Support of Construction System Management]. Inzhenernyy vestnik Dona [Engineering Proceedings of Don]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 25—30.
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Pages 176-183

Teaching descriptive geometry has its own characteristics. Need not only to inform students of a certain amount of knowledge on the subject, but also to develop their spatial imagination as well as the right to develop the skills of logical thinking. Practice of teaching the discipline showed that students face serious difficulties in the process of its study. This is due to the relatively low level of their schooling in geometry and technical drawing, and lacking in high spatial imagination. They find it difficult to imagine the geometrical image of the object of study and mentally convert it on the plane. Because of this, there is a need to find ways to effectively teach the discipline «Descriptive Geometry» at university. In the context of global informatization and computerization of the educational process, implementation of graphically programs for the development of design documentation and 3D modeling is one of the most promising applications of information technology in the process of solving these problems. With the help of three-dimensional models the best visibility in the classroom is achieved. When conducting lectures on descriptive geometry it is requested to use three-dimensional modeling not only as didactic means (demonstrativeness means), but also as a method of teaching (learning tool) to deal with various graphics tasks. Bearing this in mind, the essence of the implementation of 3D modeling is revealed with the aim of better understanding of the algorithms for solving both positional and metric tasks using spatial representation of graphic constructions. It is shown that the possibility to consider the built model from different angles is of particular importance, as well as the use of transparency properties for illustrating the results of solving geometric problems. Using 3D models together with their display on the plane, as well as text information promotes better assimilation and more lasting memorization of the material.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.5.176-183

- Novoselov S.A., Turkina L.V. Tvorcheskie zadachi po nachertatel'noy geometrii kak sredstvo formirovaniya obobshhennoy orientirovochnoy osnovy obucheniya inzhenerno-graficheskoy deyatel'nosti [Creative Tasks on Descriptive Geometry as a Means of Forming a Rough Basis for Studying Engineering and Graphics]. Obrazovanie i nauka [Education and Science]. 2011, no. 2 (81), pp. 31—41.
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- Tel'noy V.I. Ispol'zovanie didakticheskikh printsipov pri izuchenii gosudarstvennykh standartov ESKD i SPDS v kurse inzhenernoy grafiki [Using Didactic Principles in the Study of State Standards for the Unified System of Design Documentation and the System of Design Documentation for Civil Engineering in the Course of Engineering Graphics]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 255—262.